Design development and implementation of manual rice transplanter in rural communities of Nepal.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Prabij Joshi
Head, Department of Mechanical and Automobile Engineering


Rice is the most common source of food in Nepal. While the production of rice in Nepal is deficient to fulfill the demand of people living in Nepal. Based on the average per capita milled rice consumption of 122 kg per year and total population of 27.6 million, the total demand for milled rice in Nepal is estimated at 3.37 million tons (5.04 million tons of paddy) in 2012 but the country produced only 2.97 million tons milled rice (4.50 million tons paddy). Assuming that only 80% of total harvest is available for human consumption, the total milled rice produced in the country available for consumption is only 2.38 million tons (3.60 million tons of paddy). This indicates the country has a shortfall of about 1 million tons of milled rice (1.5 million tons paddy). Thus, to reduce the production-supply gap Nepal needs to move towards mechanization in agricultural fields.

In order to contribute to mechanization, in the field of agriculture, there is a need for rice transplants. By using rice transplanter, few (one to two) manpower can easily finish the transplantation of paddy seedlings in the field. Design of rice transplanter is essential for effective mechanization in agricultural fields. The operation of transplantation of rice transplanter is fully based on 4 bar linkage mechanism, speed increment and power transmission by chain drive mechanism. For effective and uniform plantation of seedlings, rice transplanter was designed and fabricated according to System of Rice Intensification (SRI) norms. Computer aided design (CAD) model of rice transplanter was designed and then simulated to test deformation, stress and other design parameters like depth of transplantation and distance between consecutive seedlings. The prototype of rice transplanter was then fabricated and tested to check the transplanting distance and planting depth.

The transplanting distance between two successive seedlings based on the site selection in Gandaki Province, which is assumed to be a representation of Nepalese fields on its first phase. This project helps to enhance the agriculture sector of Nepal. This would be a small step for the mechanization for paddy transplanter, which is the top priority plant and highly consumed crop in the context of Nepal. Implementation of this rice-transplanter would improve the socio-economic condition of the farmer. It would also address the labour shortage in the country due to immigration.

Research Team
  • PI: Asst Prof. Dr Prabij Joshi
  • Mr. Binod Bhattarai
Student Researchers
  • Kushum KC
  • Bijay Ghimire
  • Kishor Rijal
  • Ashish Pandey
  • Anup Shrestha
  • Bishwas Gautam
  • Bishwas Acharya
  • Bijay Pacchai
Part Time Researchers
  • Assoc. Prof. Krishna Raj Adhikari
  • Mr. Kiran Giri